The Treaty of the Pyrenees

  • 30 November a -0001
The Treaty of the Pyrenees

Disagreements between neighboring countries came from afar. In 1621 Felipe IV reigned in Spain with only 16 years. Louis XIII reigned in France, with 20 years. The Spanish monarch was married to the sister of the French, and the French monarch once was married to the sister of Spanish. Things of that time and things of kings. However, the relations of both countries with others in Europe, tensions between them, eventually led to a war between Spain and France in 1635. The joy Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of the Pyrenees signed in 1659. the treaty was the result of discreet negotiations for two years ended with the signature on the island of Pheasants, amid the Bidasoa river, between the months of August and November 1659.

The two countries needed to end the war by the economic drain that meant. Also they took the opportunity to improve personal situations and get settle old claims. Thus, the Spanish king "the Catolicísimo" managed to marry her daughter with her cousin, the French King Louis XIV the most Christian. And the French king managed to integrate into their territory northern Catalonia, with the counties of Roussillon, Conflent, Vallespir, Capcir and part of the Cerdanya. To get an idea of what this annexation supposed need to know that Perpignan was the second largest city in Catalonia.

Therefore, the segregation of the regions of Catalonia was a heavy blow, both economically and historically, as these regions are the cradle of Catalonia.

Seen from afar, over the centuries, leaving historical feelings, it was expected that one day France would base its border in the Pyrenean ridge. And obviously the crest does not reach Salsas, reaches Portbou.

The treaty speaks of general lines. The important item is 42. It states that "... agree that the Pyrenees mountains, which had formerly divided Gaul of Spain, will eventually become the division of the two kingdoms. You agree that the Most Christian King, will in possession and effectively enjoy all the county and veguería Rossello, county and magistrature of Conflent, country, villas, squares and castles, villages, and places that make up these counties and veguerías of Roussillon and Conflent. and will the King Very Catholic the county and magistrature of Cerdanya and all the Principality of Catalonia ... "

As geography was not a mainstream science in those years, Articles 109 and 110 of the treaty leaves some commissioners work to formalize in detail the border line. It was in Ceret in the spring of 1660 where the commissioners met to discuss in detail the line of the border. The French were having swallowed the Conflent, Capcir and Roussillon. He lacked the Cerdanya and Vallespir. Ceret on Prada and elected Figueras, although other conferences were made in the last villa. The French commissioners were Peire Brand, archbishop of Toulouse and Giacinto Serroni, Bishop of Orange. The Spaniards were Miguel calba, Vallgornera and José Romeu Ferre, magistrate of Catalonia. The conference was due to meet the border as the neighboring mountains and dividing the two territories "... those that separate in old age (in the French version) or commonly (in the Spanish version) Gaul of Spain". The work was difficult, delicate semantic interpretations.

Ceret conference began on 22 March 1660. The first day served to establish the semantic boundaries of old age. The next day it was discussed whether the division should begin Cape Creus or Cervera. They wondered if the Sant Pere de Rodes should be part of France. The Spaniards defended brandishing Conflent County that had always been part of the Cerdanya. On March 24 they returned to discuss old age and commonly, translating into Latin by antiquitus and semper. 25 they read and interpret texts of ancient authors. The French called the valley of Urgell understanding that was northern slope because the waters were born in their domains. March 28 was Easter. On Monday the Spanish negotiators continued talking again Conflent, a counter argument on the spot Urgell. The discussions were completed on April 13, outlining what each side had presented. Finally, the Spaniards accepted the dividing line between Banyuls and Cervera.

By then King Louis XIV had gone to Perpignan to visit the new conquest. In June the king married the Spanish Infanta Maria Teresa in San Juan de Luz.

On 12 November 1660 the Treaty of Llívia so that negotiators reach an agreement on the border formed was signed. In it is said that after examining in detail the Cerdanya, His Majesty Very Christian will be given the following towns: Querol, Enveig, Ur, Dorres, Vilanova de Escaldes, Odello, Bolquera, Sallagosa, the perxa, Llo, Eina, San Pedro de los Forcats, Sainte-Léocadie, Er, plans, Caldegas and Oceja. As for Llivia, the commissioners determine that belongs to the king's dominions Very Catholic, provided they can never fortifying.

As I said it was evidence that the border eventually had to follow the crest Pirenaica is clear that France's goal came in the same firm on the island of Pheasants. Ceret negotiators could do little if the treaty and said the Conflent, Roussillon and Cerdaña be part of the French.

From the geographical point of view it seems that there was insufficient knowledge of the Spanish negotiators. There are two points between which the border is debatable. Among the Puigpedrós, just after Andorra, the Roc de Frausa and situated between the Baths of Arles and Maçanet de Cabrenys, the border does not meet the criterion of the Pyrenean ridge. Now the border passes behind Puigcerdà to go to climb the ridge that goes up to Puigmal and hence the peak of Eina. But there was a better solution in the course of the boundary between the Puigpedrós and the peak of Eina that was to go to the Carlit peak, peak Peric, Angles, Montlluís, San Pedro de los Forcats and Eina peak. This route was much more coherent than what has been definitive, leaving intact and from Cerdanya.

If the negotiators wanted to respect the main Pirenaica crest division had to pass by the Canigó, last mountain over 2,000 meters before the sea. The best border should save the layout of Canigó to the Roc de Frausa and tie the limit from Peak eina (from where we should come to Montlluís) through Nou Fonts, Nou Creus, Mark, Peak Women, Roca Colon, cracks red, Plan Guillem, red and Tretzevents Pico, next to the Canigó, to go down to the Vallespir and go to Roc de Frausa. Cut the north Vallespir is not as radical as cutting the Conflent because the Vallespir is connected to the Alt Emporda by Maçanet of Cabrenys.

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